However, the opportunity for the customer to browse merchandise, touch and feel products began to be available, with retail innovations from the late 17th and early 18th centuries. Dubler, Anne-Marie 27 November Some researchers have adapted Sproles and Kendall's methodology for use in specific countries or cultural groups.
The first shopping centre in the Netherlands was built in the s, as retail design ideas began spreading east. The next evolution of retail design was the creation of the boutique in the s, which emphasized retail design run by individuals.
Some of the earliest examples of boutiques are the Biba boutique created by Barbara Hulanicki and the Habitat line of stores made by Terence Conran. The rise of the boutique was followed, in the next two decades, with an overall increase in consumer spending across the developed world.
This rise made retail design shift to compensate for increased customers and alternative focuses. Many retail design stores redesigned themselves over the period to keep up with changing consumer tastes.
These changes resulted on one side with the creation of multiple "expensive, one-off designer shops" catering to specific fashion designers and retailers. The rise of the internet and internet retailing in the latter part of the 20th century and into the 21st century saw another change in retail design to compensate. Many different sectors not related to the internet reached out to retail design and its practices to lure online shoppers back to physical shops, where retail design can be properly utilized.
A retail designer must create a thematic experience for the consumer , by using spatial cues to entertain as well as entice the consumer to purchase goods and interact with the space. Retail designers have an acute awareness that the store and their designs are the background to the merchandise and are only there to represent and create the best possible environment in which to reflect the merchandise to the target consumer group.
Since the evolution of retail design and its impact on productivity have become clear, a series of standardisations in the techniques and design qualities has been determined. These standardisations range from alterations to the perspective of the structure of the space, entrances, circulation systems, atmospheric qualities light and sound and materiality.
By exploring these standardisations in retail design the consumer will be given a thematic experience that entices them to purchase the merchandise.
It is also important to acknowledge that a retail space must combine both permanent and non permanent features, that allow it to change as the needs of the consumer and merchandise change e. The structure of retail space creates the constraints of the overall design; often the spaces already exist, and have had many prior uses. It is at this stage that logistics must be determined, structural features like columns, stairways, ceiling height, windows and emergency exists all must be factored into the final design.
In retail one hundred percent of the space must be utilised and have a purpose. Circulation is important because it ensures that the consumer moves through the store from front to back, guiding them to important displays and in the end to the cashier. Once the overall structure and circulation of the space has been determined, the atmosphere and thematics of the space must be created through lighting, sound, materials and visual branding. These design elements will cohesively have the greatest impact on the consumer and thus the level of productivity that could be achieved.
Lighting can have a dramatic impact on the space. It needs to be functional but also complement the merchandise as well as emphasize key points throughout the store. The lighting should be layered and of a variety of intensities and fixtures. But creating a brand image does not have to be a complex and high-priced venture, says marketing expert Maria Ross.
Entrepreneurs on any size budget should take a closer look at retail branding theory because it can multiply their bottom lines. To prove that smart branding drives profits, retail branding theorists point to real-life examples. Brand expert Interbrand Design Forum's retail report lists the top-performing U. Finally, there is the example of Apple Inc.
According to the website BrandStrategyInsider, Apple can attribute its success to a forceful branding message: Apple has created a market that it singularly owns. Retail branding requires strategy, which is the tactics a company adopts to arouse consumers' interest in its brand.
According to the marketing website Design Damage, strategy starts when a company's marketing department defines a brand that embraces its business model. It then develops a consistent message aimed at consumers' emotions, which persuades them to prefer one product over others for reasons they cannot always fully identify.
To further strengthen that customer loyalty, a brand strategy should be flexible enough for a company to alter its brand when consumer spending recedes. An example is to extend money back guarantees during a sluggish economy. Strategy tactics also help a business decide on the most effective media -- television, print advertising or social websites -- to carry its message. At The Co-operative Group's AGM, it was announced that the Group would go back to a revitalised version of the Co-op 'cloverleaf' design, utilising a uniform blue through all business areas.
Following the success of the Rochdale Pioneers , co-operative shops were established across the UK and took customers away from private traders who responded by making it difficult for co-operatives to source quality goods to sell to their members. The solution was for co-operative retailers to come together in and form the Co-operative Wholesale Society CWS now the Co-operative Group responsible for sourcing and producing goods for sale in its members' shops, and for unified marketing and branding for the societies.
The CWS carried out this role for members for nearly years, and in launched "Operation Facelift", which resulted in the first national Co-op logo. The movement's cloverleaf logo created the impression that it was a single organisation rather than independent organisations sharing common principles.
The brand was strengthened by the creation of the Co-operative Retail Trading Group CRTG in , providing Co-op branded products and other food supplies to its members: Over time, the brand became tarnished by inconsistent customer delivery and image perceptions of the cloverleaf logo were irreparably damaged.
Market research carried out in the early s showed a consistent decline in consumer ratings. The Co-operative Movement called on then Prime Minister , Tony Blair , to establish a Co-operative Commission to consider ways to ensure the survival of the co-operative business model into the 21st century.
The commission, chaired by John Monks , published its conclusions in January making recommendations regarding branding. Most important were that a panel representing all sections of the movement should be established to monitor and maintain the positive image of the brand, and that it should consider the "cloverleaf" logo's future. The Co-operative Group's designers and marketers collaborated with Harry Pearce and John McConnell of the designers' co-operative Pentagram , to develop a new identity to represent "The Co-operative".
The selected artwork was based on a sans serif bold lower case Neue Helvetica logotype for the wording, with different colours representing different businesses. It won a silver award from the Design Business Association. The brand was trialled between and , at several outlets of the Co-operative Group, Scotmid , United Co-operatives and Midcounties Co-operative. The brand was introduced to food packaging in , and officially launched in It was used in national advertising and a national programme of shop refits.
As of May , the Co-op group have reintroduced an updated version of the logo and are moving to phase out the co-operative logo throughout all their fully owned business, in favour of the cloverleaf. This transition includes refreshing all Co-op branded products, within vast areas of the group including Food, Funeralcare and Insurance. The roll-out of the refreshed design was announced at the group's AGM and is expected to be completed by the end of After the Co-operative Group's decision to re-adopt the cloverleaf logo, several co-operatives - including The Phone Co-op and The Co-operative Energy - took the decision to switch from the Co-operative Brand to the 'coop' Global Cooperative Marque of the International Co-operative Alliance.
Store-brand goods are generally cheaper than national-brand goods, because the retailer can optimize the production to suit consumer demand and reduce advertising costs. Goods sold under a store brand are subject to the same regulatory oversight as goods sold under a national brand. Retail branding requires strategy, which is the tactics a company adopts to arouse consumers' interest in its brand. According to the marketing website Design Damage, strategy starts when a. In marketing, brand management is the analysis and planning on how that brand is perceived in the salestopp1se.gqping a good relationship with the target market is essential for brand management. Tangible elements of brand management include the product itself; look, price, the packaging, etc. The intangible elements are the experience that the consumer has had with the brand, and also the.